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In money games, a player is often permitted to "beaver" when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.
A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the "raccoon". Players who doubled their opponent, seeing the opponent beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again "raccoon" as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled.
The opponent retains the doubling cube. An example of a "raccoon" is the following: White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.
Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.
Some players may opt to invoke the "Murphy rule" or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.
The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.
When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.
The "Jacoby rule", named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.
This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.
The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The "Crawford rule", named after John R. Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead.
If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.
Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the "Crawford game".
After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play.
If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the "Holland rule", named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.
It was common in tournament play in the s, but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules.
Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game. Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.
Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.
The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move. A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles.
Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the 24, 23 and 22 points.
The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions. Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is "safe".
All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge. Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard  in which players start with one less checker on the 6-point and midpoint and two checkers on the point.
Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.
Gul bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5.
Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece.
Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. Misere backgammon to lose is a variant of backgammon in which the objective is to lose the game.
Tabla is a Bulgarian variant of Backgammon, played without the doubling cube. Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions.
For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain  or disallowing "hit-and-run" in the home board Middle East.
Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.
Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.
A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture. Strategies can derive from that.
The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.
As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.
The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.
A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.
A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.
The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.
For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.
Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.
The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count". The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.
Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "money" and "match" play.
Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not.
The format has a significant effect on strategy. In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.
For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.
Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game.
In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score.
In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.
Professional live tournaments can offer huge amounts of money as prizes to the winning players. The professional Backgammon tournaments take place all over the world, which means they are only really open to the committed player with a large bankroll available to them.
Unlike online Backgammon play, you won't have a computer highlighting the available moves, so you must count off points yourself.
You should get use to doing this in your head before attempting live tournament play. If your playing a private game for stakes you should both agree on the stakes and method you're going to use to determine the winning player's winnings.
You could simply play for a fixed amount for a game, or more professionally use the doubling cube and include gammons, backgammons, and other rules to determine the amount won or lost.
Try and make sure the game is a friendly one by following proper Backgammon etiquette. You will find this more enjoyable than bickering and using gamesmanship with your opponent.
The person that is offered the cube has two options. He can decline the offer, which immediately resigns the game for a score of one point; or he can accept the cube, thus doubling the stakes to two points, and play on.
Once the cube has been offered and accepted once in a game, it is always in the possession of one of the two players it can never return to being in the middle as it was at the start of the game.
The cube can be offered and accepted an unlimited number of times, passing back and forth between the two players. From double stakes the game could theoretically go to quadruple stakes, then 8-times stakes, times stakes, and so on.
In practice it is very rare for the stakes to get this high, as that should only occur if strong favouritism to win the game swung back and forth violently between the two players many times throughout the game.
Gammons and backgammons still count toward the final result, in addition to any action on the doubling cube.
Turn this option on or off in the menu at the start of the game. It is a marker, instead of a die. The opponent must either accept th doubled stake or resign to defeat immediately thus ending the game.
The option to redouble belongs exclusively to the player who accepted the double. Technically, the game can be doubled up to 64 times the score, but it rarely goes beyond 4.
If the "double" is declined, the doubler wins however many points the doubling cube is showing 1 x doubling cube.
If the game is played, the resulting score will then be multiplied by the doubling cube number. This little die adds a lot of fun strategy to the game.
We recommend trying it on for size! No payouts will be awarded, there are no "winnings", as all games represented by Games LLC are free to play.
Play strictly for fun. Also Try Where Did Backgammon Begin? The Set-Up — Backgammon Board and Game Pieces How to Play Backgammon The Backgammon Doubling Cube Backgammon Strategy Variations of Backgammon Backgammon — From the Board to the Virtual Board Conclusion.
All About Backgammon — How to Play and More. The components required for a game of backgammon are as follows. Board 30 game pieces checkers divided into two distinct colors Two pairs of dice Two dice cups optional Doubling cube with pips 2, 4, 8, 15, 32, and Five on the 6th point Three on the 8th point Five on the 13th point Two on the 24th point.
Point A point indicates one game space or one move. When a player rolls the dice, each pip is converted to one point.
For example, if a die comes up as two, the player can move two spaces or points in the direction of their home area.
More than one checker can rest on a single point, but they must be from a single player. Two players cannot occupy one point or game space at the same time.
Home area The home area is the final quarter section of the game board for each player. Bar The bar is the center section of the board.
Blot A blot is a space or point that has only one checker resting on it. Hit A hit occurs when one player can make a move to a blot occupied by the opponent.
Bearing off Bearing off is removing your checker from the board. The objective of backgammon is to bear off your checkers before your opponent.
Doubles A player that rolls the same pip value on both dice at once has doubles. That player gets to make twice the moves.
Meaning, one or more checkers will be moved three points forward for a total of four times instead of two. Regular non-double rolls only permit two moves; doubles allow for four.
In a regular game, a gammon is worth two points. In a regular game, backgammon is worth three points.For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll Divisio 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once. Computer-versus-computer competitions are also Farm Of Dreams at Computer Olympiad events. A backgammon will win you 12 points! Its Toggo Lernspiele network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play. Backgammon Backgammon Gambling New Backgammon Site. One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Backgammon is a member of the tables family, one of the oldest classes of board games. There are backgammon clubs and societies in many parts of the world, and they typically organize regular competitions and tournaments for players of all levels. Vyzantinon Vios kai Politismos. The rules of Senat are not entirely clear, but relics of the original boards have been found in Persia, Greece, Rome, and the Far East. A blot has the highest probability of being hit Safari Slot Game it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture. The Macau government will spend the rest of spreading its responsible gambling message to One to three points can be awarded during the backgammon game dependant on where the loser's checkers are on the board when the winner wins. Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, Jimmy Jungles also to facilitate Spieletester Werden between humans over the internet.